THE BROADCASTING BILL,1997
bill is to provide for an independent authority to be known as the
broadcasting authority of India which is for the purpose of facilitating
and regulating broadcasting services in India. The authority will
have a perpetual succession and a common seal with powers to enter
into a contract and can sue and can be sued in its name .it consists
of a chairperson who will be appointed by President of India on recommendation
from the Chairman of the states who will be the Chairman of the Committee
the I & B minister and the Press council of India. It will also consist
of maximum eleven part-time members to be appointed by the central
government, a secretary to the government incharge of DOT,a secretary
general .The Chairperson will be a whole time member and will hold
office for a term of five years. He will be appointed from amongst
the persons of eminence with more than fifteen years of experience
in administration, law, broadcasting, programming, engineering, journalism
etc .The part time members shall hold office for three years and also
will be eligible for reappointment for the second term. The authority
will hold minimum eight meetings every year. all questions raised
or which come up at the meeting will be decided by majority.
functions of authority will be :
1. To carry out frequency planning of such frequencies or band of
frequencies assigned to it by the wireless adviser to the government
for the purpose of ing services
2. To grant licences for broadcasting services.
3. To ensure that wide range of broadcasting services are available
4. To ensure services of high quality and offer a wide range of programmes
to appeal to variety of tastes and interests.
5. To determine the programme code and standard.
6. To take necessary action for violation of code ,violation of condition
7. To set technical and other quality standards to ensure a reasonable
quality of reception.
authority can appoint a committee of experts to advice on:
1. Practices to be followed in connection with unjust and unfair treatment
to any person in programmes, unwarranted infringement of privacy included
2. Practices to be followed in connection to portrayal of violence
,sexual conduct in the programmes i.e.,to set standards of decency
for programmes. with regards to the attitude fo the public at large.
No person is entitled to provide broadcasting services without obtaining
a licence ,after commencement of this act. The authority can grant
licences for the following broadcasting services ,namely :-
1. TERRESTRIAL RADIO BROADCASTING
2. TERRESTRIAL TELEVISION BROADCASTING
3. SATELLITE RADIO BROADCASTING
4. SATELLITE TELIVISION BROADCASTING
5. DIRECT TO HOME BROADCASTING
6. LOCAL DELIVERY SERVICES
7. Such other services as may be prescribed.
Terrestrial broadcasting services can be further categeorised into
analogue and digital and also into national ,regional , local , restricted
local services or any other similar service for the purposes of the
licences and prevention of heir accumulation.
licence shall be provided subject to following conditions :-
1. The person granted the licence will ensure that nothing is included
in the programmes of the licensee which is likely to encourage crime
or lead to disorder or will be offensive to public feeling.
2. The licensee will ensure that news given in the programme will
be presented with due accuracy and impartiality.
3. The licensee has to ensure that due impartiality is maintained
in respect of social or political issues or matter relating to public
4. The licensee will ensure due responsibility is exercised with respect
to religious programmes with a view to avoiding - improper exploition
of religious susceptibilities and offence to the religious views and
beliefs of those belonging to a particular religion.
5.The licensee will ensure that due emphasis is given to promote national
integration, Indian culture in his programmes.
6. The licensee will have to ensure that time, detemined by the Authority
,is earmarked for broadcasting of - children's programmes , educational
programmes ,programmes of Indian origin , a range of diversity of
7. The licensee will have to follow the programme codes and standards
and codes set by the Authority.
8. The licensee will pay the license fees in the same manner as may
be determined by the regulations.
9. The Licensee will not carry out networking of local or regional
broadcasting services without prior approval of the authority.
10. The conditions of the license can be changed by the Authority
after giving to the licensee a reasonable opportunity of being heard.
licence granted for Direct -To - Home service or Local Delivery service
shall be subject to the following conditions in addition to the conditions
referred above :-
1. The licensee will have to provide a tier basic service which may
include a number and type of terrestrial broadcasting for every permitted
services and also of the public service broadcaster.
2. the licensee will include only licensed services or permitted services
in his delivery package for the purpose of distribution and also he
will not use more than that no of channels as determined by the Authority
out of the total channel capacity of the system for providing his
The period of licence for each category will be for a period not exceeding
ten years .The licence is not transferable and it will lapse prior
to its normal expiry in case of insolvency or death of the licensee.
No person will be given the number of licences for a category of services
more than the number prescribed for the category of service. There
are restrictions on cross media ownership between the newspaper and
the broadcasting service. The government can modify any limit on interest
or equity holding in the body corporate or companies by notification
in the official gazette.
of licence for satellite broadcasting services.
1. Any person desirous of obtaining a satellite broadcasting licence
will have to apply to the Authority.
2.If the Authority is satisfied that the applicant --- a)has acquired
transponder on an Indian satellite system or on a foreign satellite
system . b) has obtained technical clearance for transponders from
the wireless adviser . c) Has fulfilled all other condition laid down
in the Act ;The Authority may grant a licence to such person on payment
of fees ; If the Authority refuses to grant a licence it will have
to give the applicant an opportunity to be heard. Provide further
that such a person providing his broadcasting services immediately
before the commencement of the Act may continue to do so without a
licence for a period of one month from such commencement.
of licence for Direct - To - Home Service.
The Authority will invite bids for grant of licence and it will be
granted to the highest bidder if he fulfils all the conditions for
the grant of such licence. The Authority grant such no of licences
(not less than two ) as may be prescribed.
Special Provisions for Satellite broadcasting and Direct-To-Home
The wireless Adviser will give technical clearance for licensing (the
clearance can be refused on technical or security reasons. In cases
where operations of the services are permitted with foreign satellite
system , while giving technical clearance for relicensing or renewal
of such services, give priority for their operation with Indian Satellite
The licensee shall carry out the up linking of satellite broadcasting
services or direct - to - home services from India only up linking
of coverage of live events taking place outside India can be permitted
as determined by the regulations. The Authority can permit continuance
of up linking of satellite broadcasting services from outside India
till such time as it is reasonably required for shifting or creating
the necessary up linking facility in India.
Grant of licence for terrestrial services
The Authority will invite bids for granting of licence and it will
be granted to the highest bidder .The Authority will grant licences
to such as may be notified for terrestrial broadcasting services through
restricted bids .No institution will be notified unless the object
of such institution is to provide education ,community service, Health
awareness etc. The wireless adviser will assign to the Authority for
the purpose of grant of terrestrial broadcasting service licence such
frequencies as it may determine .
Grant of licence for Local Delivery Services.
The authority will grant two licences for Local Delivery Service
for each telecom circle as identified by the Central government. The
Authority will invite bids and licence will be granted to the highest
bidder. The Wireless Adviser shall assign frequencies for MMDS for
providing Local Delivery service, wherever it is required.
The Authority may exempt the non-commercial establishments under common
ownership from obtaining a licence for the purpose of providing cable
telivision services for the exclusive use of their members.The government
can by notification confer upon the licensee of the local delivery
services ,such right and obligations as it may consider necessary
in respect of placing and maintaining of his cable networks as available
to the telegraph authority.
Enforcement of Licences.
The Authority can take any of the following actions in case of breach
of any terms of the licence
1.Direct licensing to correction or apology or not to repeat a programme;
2.To impose a penalty which may extend up to rupees fifty lakhs.
3.suspend the licence for a specified period
4.curtail the period of the licence.
5.revoke the licence.
Any aggrieved person may prefer an appeal an action of the Authority
in High Court having Jurisdiction within thirty days of such action.
The proceeds of the licence fee will be credited to the consolidated
Fund of India. The Authority will have its own fund and all receipts
of the authority will be credited to the fund and all payments by
the Authority will be from them. The Authority will submit a report
at the end of each financial year to the central government.
Offence and Punishments:- A person who provides ,distributes
or receives any broadcasting service which is neither a licensed service
nor a permitted service or abets or assists transmission of such service
in any manner which may include collection of subscription for his
principal ,issuing of advertisements to such service, dealing in or
distribution of decoders or dish antennas, shall be guilty of committing
an offence of illegal broadcasting and on conviction , shall be punishable
with imprisonment which may extend up to five years ,or with fine
which may extend up to rupees ten lakhs and in subsequent offence
such fine may extend to rupees fifty lakhs, or with both.
Special provisions for certain foreign satellite broadcasting services.
The authority after receiving a request in this regard ,may grant
permission for reception of an unlicensed foriegn satellite brosdcasting
service in India ,
if such broadcasting is service --
1. Is free to Air broadcasting service;
2. Does not carry any Advertisements;or carries advertisements for
the duration as amy be fixed by the Authority.and the service is evoted
solely to sports or international news and current affairs
3. Fulfils the programme standard with respect to permitted service.
Provided that the Authority may revoke such permission ,if it feels
that the service has contravened any of the above conditions.
Prohibition of exclusive rights for live broadcasting of certain events.
No licensee shall carry a live broadcast of any sporting or other
event of national or internatinal interest held in India ,without
the consent of the Authority unless the public service broadcasters
have also been given the broadcasting right for carrying the same.
Procedure and powers of the Authority
1.The Authority will be guided by principles off natural justice and
subject to the other provisions of this act and of any rules , the
Authority will have powers to regulate its own procedure including
the fixing of places and times of its inquiry.
2. The Authority will have for the purpose of discharging its functions
under this Act,the same powers as are vested in a civil court under
the code of Civil Procedure,while trying a suit , in respect of the
following matters ,namely :-
a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any peron and examining
him on oath;
b) receiving evidence on affidavits;
c) Issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses or documents;
d) Any other matter which may be prescibed.
In event of any war or a natural calamity of national magnitude ,
the central government may , in public interest,take over the control
and management of any broadcasting service or any facility connected
therewith,suspend its operation or entrust the public service broadcaster
to manage it i the manner directed by the government for such period
as it deems fit.The government ,if it considers neccessary or expedient
to do so,may, in public interest , at any time require the Authority
to Direct any licensee to --
1. Transmit in his broadcasting service such announcement in such
a manner as may be considered necessary;
2. stop any broadcasting service which is considered prejudicial to
friendly relations with a foreign country ,public order,security of
state , or communal harmony. The central government may in public
interest , issue such other directions ,to the Authority, from time
to time as considered necessary.
Powers of the Authority to seek information conduct enquires ,take
evidence , etc. 1. The licinsee will have start his service within
the period specfied by the Authority and maintain documentry records
and transmission scedules as may be specified and allow inspection
of such records to the Authority.
2. The Authority can call for information from the licensee ehich
it considers in the public interest and necessary for the transperency
and accertaining the true ownership of the licensee.The Authority
will have all the powers of an inspecting officer.If the licensee
defaults with any conditons the Authority can cancel the licence.
The application of this law is in addition to and not in deroation
of the provisions of any other law.
POWER TO MAKE RULES:
Central government can by notificaion make rules for carrying out
provisions of this Act.The Rules will provide for all or any of the
1. Provide foe circumstances for communication.
2. salaries and allowances payable to the Chairperson and other part
3.The functions to be performed by the Authority.
4. No of licences more than which can't be given.
POWER TO MAKE REGULATIONS.
The Authority can make regulations and rules made their underby notification.
The rules will provide for all or any of the following matter.
1. The time and place of the meetings,the procedure of transaction
2. The manner of appointment of officers and employees and their salary.
3. The quality of reception and the programmme cod and standard.
4. The manner in which licence fee should be paid by the licensee
and the conditions of granting licence.
5.The minimum no and type of ing service of public service broadcaster
and of terrristrial broadcasting services for every permitted service.
6. The no. of channels to be used and the period of licence to the
7. The criteria subject to which the uplinking from outside India
will be permitted in respect of these services for coverage of live
events taking place outside India.
8. Restricted area under which permission may be granted.
9. Any sporting or other event of natonal or international interest
of which live telecast shall be carried out iwithout Authority's permission
10.The documentry record and transmission schedule to be maintained.
Every rules and regulations are to be laid before the parliament.The
central government can make provisions in the Act within three years
of commencemant of this bill and not after that, to remove any difficulties
REPEAL AND SAVING
The cable telivision networks (regulation ) Act 1995 is repealed.The
cable operators registered under this Act can make an application
to the Authority for grant of licence within six months of commencement
of this Act.The Authority may grant or refuse the licence to the operator
. No licence will be granted to any cable TV network which provides
such service to more than five thousand households and from more than
one location.No refusal can be made unless the Applicant has a chance
to present the case.The Authority will authorise a District Magistrate
to look in to the complaints of the public . give notice to the operatorsmake
inquires and take necassary action.
RESTRICTIONS ON THE HOLDING OF LICENCES
PART -- I
A Disqualification for holding of licences
The following persons will be disqualified for the purpose of grant
of licence :-
General Disqualification :
(a). An individual who is not an Indian national.
(b). A partnership firm all of whose partners are not citizens of
(c). Companies not incoperated in India.
(d). Companies incorporated in India but with: (a) Foreign equity
in case of terrestrial broadcasting services.(b) Foreign equity exceeding
49% in case of other services not mentioned in (i) above and management
control not with Indian shareholders.
(e). Governments and local authorities.
(f). Any person convicted of an offence under this Act or convicted
under Representation of the peoples Act or declared as insolvent.
(g). A body , which is controlled by a person , referred to in any
of clause (a) to (e) above.
(h) A body corporate ,in which a body referred to in clause (g) above
,is a participant with more than a 5 percent interest.
Foreign equity for this part will be notified to the government. from
time to time.
Disqualification of religious bodies.
1.A body which is or is controlled by a body or controls a body whose
objectives are wholly or mainly of a religious nature.
2.A body corporate in which the body referred above is a participant
with more than five percent interest.
3.A person who is an officer of the body.
Disqualification of political bodies.
1.A body which is or affiliated to or is a participant with more than
five percent interest to a body whose objects are or mainly of political
2.An individual who is an officer of the body.
Disqualification of publicly funded bodies.
1. A body (other than a local Authority ) which has in its last financial
year received more than half its income from public funds.
2.A body which is controlled or a corporate which has more than five
percent interest in the above mentioned body.
Disqualification of advertising agencies.
1. An Advertising Agency ,its associate or a body corporate having
more than five percent interest in a ad agency.
PART - I I
Restriction To Prevent Accumulation of interest in licensed Services.
1. A person will be allowed to hold licences in only one of the
following category of services:--
[a] Terrestrial Radio Broadcasting .
[b] Terrestrial Television Broadcasting .
[c] Satellite Television or Radio Broadcasting .
[d] Direct - To - Home Broadcasting .
[e] Local Delivery Services .
[f] Any other category of services which may be notified by the central
2. Any restriction on participation imposed as above on the holder
of a licence shall apply to him as if he and every person connected
with hi were one person.
PART - III
Restrictions On Controlling Interest in Both Newspapers and licensed
1. No proprietor of a newspaper will either be a participant with
more than twenty percent interest in or control a body corporate which
is the holder of a licence to provide a licensed service under this
2. No proprietor of a newspaper who is a participant with more than
five percent but less than twenty percent interest in a body corporate
and not controlling such a body corporate ,holding a licence will
be a participant with more than five percent interest in any other
such body corporate.
3. No person who is the holder of a licence to provide licensed service
under this Act will be either a participant with more than twenty
per cent. interest in or control a body corporate which controls a
4. No person who is the holder of a licence and is a participant with
more than five percent but less than twenty percent interest in a
body corporate and not controlling such a body corporate which runs
a national newspaper , shall be a participant with more than five
percent interest in any other such corporate .
5. For the purpose of this part ,a person controls a newspaper if--
[a] He is the proprietor of such newspaper; or
[b] He controls a body which is the proprietor of such newspaper.
6. Any restriction on participation imposed as above on the proprietor
of any newspaper or on the holder of licence shall apply to him as
of he and every person connected with him were one person.
1. (1) For the purpose of this schedule,
"Advertising Agency" means an individual or a body corporate
who carries on business as an advertising agent (whether alone or
in partnership) or has control over any body corporate which carries
on business as an advertising agent, and any reference to an advertising
agency includes a reference to an advertising agency includes a reference
to an individual who-
a) is a director or officer of any body corporate who carries on such
a business, or
b) is employed by any person who carries on such a business.
a) in relation to a body corporate, means a directorof that body corporate
or a body corporate interconnected with that body corporate.
b) in relation to the partner of the firm, means a relative of such
partner and includes any other person of such firm;
c) in relation to the trustee of a trust, means any other trustee
of such trust; and
d) in relation to an individual, shall be construed in accordance
with subclause (3);
e) where a person or a body corporate is an associate of another person
or body corporate, the latter shall also be deemed to be an associate
of the former.
a) in relation to the body corporate, shall be construed in accordance
with subclause (3); and
b) in relation to any body other than a body corporate, means he power
of a person to secure, by virtue of the rules regulating that or any
other body, that the affairs of the first mentioned body are conducted
in accordance with the wishes of that person, and would incluede control
as a result of, or by means of, trusts, agreements, arrangements,
understandings and practices, whether or not having legal or equitable
force and whether or not based on legal or equitable rights.
"Newspaper" means as defined under the Press and Registration
Act, 1867 (25 of 1867).
(2) For the purpose of determining the persons who are an individual's
associates for the purposes of this schedule, the following persons
shall be regareded as associates of each other, namely :-
a). any individual and that individual's husband or wife of a relative,
of that individual or of that individual's husband or wife;
b) any individual or any body corporate of which that individual is
c) any person in his capacity as trustee of a settlementand the settlor
or grantor and any person associated with the settlor and grantor;
d) persons carying on business in partnership nad the husband or wife
and relatives of any of them;
e) any two or more persons acting together to secure or exercise control
of body corporate or any other associates or to secure control of
any enterprise or assets;and in this sub-paragraph "relative" means
as defined under the Companies Act, 1956.
(3) A person controls a body corporate if -
a) he has a controlling interest in the body, or
b) (although not having such an interest in the body) he is able,
by virtue of the holding of shares or the possession of voting power
in or in relation to the body or any other body corporate, to secure
that the affairs of the body are conducted in accordance with his
c) he has the power, by virtue of any powers conferred by the articles
of association or other document regulating the body or any other
body corporate, to secure that the affirs of the body are so conducted,
and for this purpose, in the absence of proof to the contrary, a person
has a controlling interest in a body corporate if he holds, or is
beneficially entitled to, more than twenty per cent, of the voting
power in it.
(4) it is hereby declared that a person may be regarded as
controlling a body corporate by virtue of clause (b) of sub-clause
(3) despite the fact that-
a) he does not have a controlling interested in any such other body
corporate as is mentioned in that paragraph, or
b) any such other body corporate does not have a controlling interest
in the body in question, or
c) he and any such body corporate together do not have a controlling
interest in that body.
(5) For the purpose of any provision of this shedule which
refers to a body controlled by two or more persons or bodies of any
description taken together, the persons or bodies in question shall
not be regarded as controlling the body by virtue of paragraph (b)
and sub-paragraph (3) unless they are acting together in concert.
(6) In this Schedule any reference to a participant with more
than a five per cent, or, as the case may be, twenty`per cent interest
in a body corporate is a reference to a person who-
a) holds or is beneficially entitled to more than five or, as the
case may be, twenty percent of the shares in that body or,
b) possesses more than five or, as the case may be, twenty per cent
of the voting power in that body, and, where any such reference has
been amended by an order under this Schedule varying the percentage
in question, this sub-paragraph shall have effect in relation to it\s
subject to the necessary modifications.
2. (1) Any reference in paragraph 1 to a person-
a) holding or being entitled to shares, or any amount of the shares
or equity share capital, in a body corporate, or
b) possessing voting power, or any amount of the voting power, in
a body corporate, is a reference to his doing so, or being so entitled,
whether alone or jointly with one or more other persons and whether
directly or through one or more nominees.
(2) "Inter connected Undertakings or Corporate Bodies" shall have
the same meaning as assigned in the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade
Practices Act, 1969 (54 of 1969).
3. For the purpose of this Schedule, the following persons are connected
with each other in relation to a particular license, namely :-
a) the license holder;
b) a person who controls the holder;
c) an associate of the license holder or of a person referred to in
clause (b), and
d) a body which is controlled by the license holder or by an associate
of the license holder.
STATEMENT OF OBJECTS AND REASONS
1.The broadcasting scenario, especially in the realm of satellite
broadcasting, has undergone a revolution during the last few years.
A large number of satellite television channels have been beaming
their programmes through the Indian skies to our people. All these
channels are foreign entities and their programmes are uplinked from
outside the country without any regulation through the law of our
land, while Indian enrtepreneurs and Indian companies are not at present
permitted to own either Radio or Television stations.
2.Concern has been voiced both inside Parliament and outside about
the implications of these unregulated television programmes and the
denial of level playing field to Indian entities. The only legal instrument
available in the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, which is considered totally
inadequate to govern modern broadcasting media. All leading democratic
countries have enacted laws specifically regarding broadcasting media.
The introduction of the Broadcasting Bill is a step in this direction.
3.It is felt that the public service broadcaster alone will not be
able to meet the needs and urges of the people in terms of variety
and plurality of programmes required in different regions by different
sections of society in our vast country. Keeping in view our great
democratic traditions, it is imperative that our citizens are all
informed and given wider choice in matters of information, education
and entertainment. This can be provided by facilitating private broadcasting
in the country.
4.The Bill needs to establish an autonomous Broadcasting Authority
for the purposes of facilitating and regulating broadcasting services
in India so that they become competitive in terms of quality of services,
cost of services and use of new technologies, apart from becoming
a catalyst for social change, promotion of values of Indian culture
and shaping of a modern vision. It will also curb monopolistic trends
in this sensitive field, so that people are provided with a wide range
of news and views.
The Bill seeks to achieve the said objectives.
The 12th May, 1997.
S. JAIPAL REDDY.
NOTES ON CLAUSES
Clause 2 defines the various expressions occuring in the Bill.
Clause 3 provides for the establishment of the Broadcasting Authority
Clause 4 provides that the President may on the grounds provided under
article 317 of the Constitution may remove or suspend the Chairperson
Clause 5 provides detailed provisions regarding the conduct of the
meetings of the Authority.
Clause 6 provides procedure for appointment of Secretary-General of
Authority and empowers the Authority to appoint other officers.
Clause 7 provides function of the Authority and empowers the Authority
to appoint committes of experts to advise on matters considered necessary.
Clause 8 provides prohibition on broadcasting service without license
by any person.
Clause 9 specifies the different services for which licenses may be
granted by the Authority.
Clause 10 specifies the conditions for granting licences for broadcasting
Clause 11 provides for the period of broadcasting licence and other
Clause 12 specifies the eligibility and restrictions for licences
to be granted by the Authority.
Clause 13 gives procedure for grant of licence for satellite broadcasting
Clause 14 provides procedure for grant of licence for Direct-to-Home
Clause 15 provides for special provisions for satellite broadcasting
and Direct-to-Home services.
Clause 16 provides procedure for grant of licence for terrestrial
Clause 17 provides procedure for grant of licence for local delivery
services by the Authority.
Clause 18 gives the details of actions which can be taken by the Authority
for enforcement of licences.
Clause 29 provides that licence fee shall be credited to the Consolidated
Fund of India and also specifies the maintainance of the accounts,
budget and audit by the Comptroller-Auditor-General of India by the
Clause 20 provides for furnishing of the Annual report to the Central
Government which shall be laid before the Parliament.,
Clause 21 prescribes offence and punishment.
Clause 22 provides special provisions for certain foreign satellite
Clause 23 empowers the Authority to refuse licence for live broadcasting
of certain events of national and international importance.
Clause 24 enumerates the procedure and powers of the Authority.
Clause 25 specifies the powers of the Central Government in event
of war or natural calamities.
Clause 26 provides powers of the Authority to seek information, conduct
enquires, take evidence, for operation and regulation licences and
also empowers the Authority to give directions to licences.
Clause 27 provides that the Chairperson and Members of the Authority
shall be deemed to be a public servant within the meaning of section
21 of the Indian Penal Code.
Clause 28 provides for usual provisions relating to the protection
of action taken in good faith by the Authority or Chairperson or Members
or officers and other employees of the Authority.
Clause 29 provides for delegation of powers to the Authority to Chairperson
or other Member or other officers.
Clause 30 provides that application of other laws are not barred and
in case of an offence committed under this Act and also under another
Act, and also under another Act, the offender shall be punished under
Clause 31 confers on the Central Government powers to make rules for
carrying out the provisions of the Bill.
Clause 32 confers on the Authority the powers to make regulation consistent
with provision of this Bill and rules made by the Central Government
thereunder before each House of Parliament.
Clause 33 provides laying of the rules and regulations before Parliament.
Clause 34 empowers the Central Government to remove difficulties which
may arise in giving effect to the provisions of the Bill.
Clause 35 provides for repeal of the Cable Television Networks (Regulation)
Act, 1995 and for licenceing and regulations of cable networks registered
under that Act on the date of commencement of this Act.
A BILL to provide for the establishment of an independent authority
to be known as the Broadcasting Authority of India, for the powers
of developing, promoting, facilitating and regulating broadcasting
services in India and to provide for matters connected therewith or
©Copyright; Ambez Media & Market Research, 1999.